STUDENTUHELP.RU

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UNIT 10

: sound [T]

: -l

: Past Perfect

: Pete's travel to London (continued)

10.1. Sound right

10.1.1. Listen, look, say:

theme north fifths three

thought south hearths throw

thigh month lenghths thread

thing youth faithsthrew

thumb truth Ruth's thrust

thin birth Smith's throng

10.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Think things over.

2. When three Thursdays come together.

3. Thad'11 go through thick and thin.

4. A thousand thanks to you both.

5. You've thrust the thing in my throat.

6. Theo threw the thing into his teeth.

7. Martha's like nothing on earth.

8. Kenneth and Arthur are as thick as thieves.

9. Theo sees through things.

10. Timothy is within a hair's breadth of death.

11. I'll speak the truth and nothing but the truth.

10.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the sound [T].

A. Date of birth?

B. The third of March, nineteen thirty three.

A. The third of March, nineteen thirty three.

. I think.

A. You think what?

B. I think it was the third but perhaps it was the fourth.

A. You think in was either the third or the fourth?

B. No, I don't think it was either the third or the fourth I know it was either the third or the

fourth and I think it was the third.

A. Mmm. Well anyway, I think you ought to know...

B. Yes?

A. The positions have been taken. We've filled the vacancies already.

B. What, both?

A. Both.

10.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

10.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

10.1.6. Try to read the tongue-twister as fast as you can:

Theo thrust a thumb through two or three thick straw thatches.

10.2. Word-building

10.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following word-combinations:

classical music, logical conclusion, critical remark, colonial system, cultural relations, liberal views, special task, universal rule, sensational news, governmental office, historical category.

10.2.2. Answer the questions:

1. Do you like sentimental poetry?

2. What are the principal towns of Russia, USA?

3. What big botanical gardens in Russia do you know?

4. In what Asian countries are there the worst material conditions of life?

10.3. Full understanding

10.3.1. , , :

Scheme ['sk?m], start, discussion, sort, residence ['rezId(@)ns], Cabinet, concert, museum, hotel [ho(u)'tel]. Big Ben, Westminister Abbey ['{bI], Poet's Corner, Chaucer ['?s@], Charles Dick ens, Alfred Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, White hall, Downing Street, Trafalgar Square, Nelson Column, National Gallery, Hyde Park, Speak er's Corner.

* 10.3.2. , , , :

New words:

to appear (.) custom

district

to produce an impression on...

to exist

School vocabulary:

go on, story, to put, to leave, foot, cry, hot, fight, to become, writer, along, number, high, hall, large, among, to keep, clean, half.

* 10.3.3. :

Pete's travel to London (continued)

Hello, everybody! I go on with my story about London. Last time I told you that Steve King had promised to be my guide. And what a nice guide he appeared to be! First he took me to Westminister where most governmental buildings are situated. From the Westminister bridge we could get the best view of the Houses of Parliament with the famous clock tower called Big Ben. We could even get inside the Houses. Before we left the Palace of Westminister (its official name) Steve had told me many interesting things about old customs which exist to this day. I'd like to tell you only about one of them. There is a strip of carpet in front of the members' benches in the House of Commons and when a member, speaking in the House puts his foot beyond that strip there is a cry Order!. This dates from the time when the members had swords on them and during hot discussions might start fighting. The carpet had become the sort of frontier. We also had visited Westminister Abbey. Steve told me that all the kings and queens of England 37 in all had been crowned there and many of them had been buried there too. One of the parts of the Abbey is called Poet's Corner, because many of the greatest writers are buried there: Chaucer, Charles Dickens, Alfred Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling and some others. Leaving the Abbey we went along Whitehall and then turned into a narrow lane Downing Street. There's Number Ten, the official residence of the Prime Minister. All the Cabinet meetings take place there. I was really happy when we came to the famous Trafalgar Square with the tall (185 feet high) Nelson Column in the centre and the National Gallery forming one side of the square.

Then Steve took me to the West End, the richest and the most beautiful part of London, where I could see the finest theatres, cinemas and concert halls, famous museums and large hotels, department stores and shops. There are many parks and gardens in the West End, among them Hyde Park, most famous of all because of its Speaker's Corner.

The East End, which is the poorest district of London where most of the workers live, didn't produce great impression on me. There are still many people who live in poverty. They keep their houses and streets clean but all of them are not half as nice as they are in the West End.

So thanks to Steve I had managed to see the most interesting sights of London by the end of my stay there. Next day after I had said good-bye to Steve and he had promised to come to our country and visit Rostov, our group left London.

10.3.4. , .

Model: I had finished reading the textbook on History of State and Law.

10.3.5. , - . , .

Model: I. I went to the concert yesterday.

2. I had gone to this concert before you did.

10.3.6. , - . , , .

Model: . Why didn't you want to translate the text?

S. Because I had translated it already?

1. Why did you refuse to see this new film?

2. Why didn't you hand in the translation in time?

3. Why didn't you speak with this girl?

4. Why didn't you prepare your home-work?

5. Why didn't you come in time?

10.3.7. Past Perfect. .

10.3.8. , . , Past Tenses. Past Tense ?

1. Mike (to swim) in the swimming-pool while I was sitting and watching him.

2. Mike got tired after he (to swim) 3 miles.

3. They (to have dinner) at 2 o'clock yesterday.

4. They said (to learn) Spanish for six months last year, but she can't speak.

5. They said the child (to draw) a very nice picture.

6. She (to clean) the rooms when somebody knocked at the door.

7. She (to clean) the rooms before she went out.

8. They went home after they (to solve) this problem.

10.3.9. Past Tenses . .

Once a mother and her two daughters were visiting London. They did sightseeing for some time when they came to the building with a noticeboard National Picture Gallery on it. The girls wanted to go in for they never were in any picture gallery. But their mother visited a picture gallery in her childhood and knew what it was like. She explained to the girls that there were no real pictures (movies she meant), but mere paintings.

*10.3.10. -:

1. . . 2. , , . 3. ? , . 4. . . . 5. , . 6. : . 7. . . 8. .

10.3.11. . , .

Useful language:

If you are interested in... you should see... If you want to see... I recommend you to go...

10.3.12. -.

As you walk past Hyde Park in London you may see people speaking on different subjects. At Speaker's Corner one can say anything one pleases. People sometimes talk about important economic, political and social problems, sometimes about minor matters.

, . , :

Ladies and gentlemen! I'd like to tell you ...

And in conclusion let me...

Thank you for attention!

* 10.3.13. , . .

I

Most members do not attend Parliament all the time;

but when there is an important discussion they are urged to attend. The Party Whips are especially responsible for seeing that all members of their party are present on such occasions. The letter sent by a Party Whip to the members of Parliament is called a whip.

II

No man can make speeches in the House of Commons unless the Speaker calls on him, and no member may deliver more than one major speech in a debate. The name of the sovereign must not be introduced and the House of Lords is always referred to as another place. Members do not address each other by name, but always as the honourable member for so-and-so.

III

There is an expression used in the House of Commons to show the end of the day's business. Somebody calls out: Who goes home? and the session ends up and the members hurry home. This custom remains from the time when there was a lot of robbers in London. In the dark night the members went in groups through the narrow streets of the old city.

, , .

*10.3.14. , . :

Q. ?

A. The Palace of Westminister is an official name for the House of Parliament. The building of the Palace is the seat of the British Parliament. There are two Houses: House of Lords and the House of Commons.

Q. ?

A. All the kings and queens of England had been crowned there and many of them as well as many great writers had been buried there too.

Q. ?

A. All the Cabinet meetings take place at Number 10, Downing street the official residence of the Prime Minister.

Q. - -?

A. Working-class London is in the East End. It is a district of docks, factories, poor little houses and narrow streets. Housing conditions in this part of London are very bad. The West End is the finest part of London. There are famous shops, theatres, cinemas, museums, picture galleries and many beautiful parks.

10.4. Practice in communication

(Complaint and Apology/Excuse)

*10.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Here are some ways of expressing your dissatisfaction with someone or something.

A. (complaint) B. (apology/excuse)

1. I bought these gloves here. 1. Yes, I know but...

When I got home there was 2. I'm sorry...

a hole in them. Look! 3. Sorry, there's no-

2. I don't think this fish is fresh, thing I can do about

3. There's no hot water in my room. it, I'm afraid.

A. 1. I (really) don't think that's good enough.

2. It/that (just) won't do.

3. That's no excuse.

4. You can't expect me to...

10.4.2. A friend complains that you:

1. never write to him or her.

2. were very rude to him/her.

3. tell lies.

4. still owe him/her 10 dollars.

Excuse yourself. Your friend doesn't accept your apology.

10.4.3. Suppose you are a landlady or landlord. One of your guests:

1. comes in late every night.

2. leaves all the lights on.

3. makes a lot of noise.

4. listens to loud pop music on the radio.

5. leaves the front door open.

Complain to him/her about these habits. He/ she will find excuses which you do not accept.

10.5. General understanding

10.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 10)

1. The motorbike was fast but the roads were icy. Coke drove dangerously. He knew he had to. He had very little time. Around 2 o'clock in the morning he suddenly saw lights in his mirror. They were the headlights of police car. It came closer and closer and then suddenly speeded up. For several seconds, Coke and the car raced along side by side. The two policemen in the car were looking at him but they couldn't see his face clearly. Coke raised his hand and waved casually. Then, the car speeded up again. In a few seconds it was far ahead him. Coke raced towards London. He knew exactly where he wanted to go.

He reached London just before 6. He drove to a block of small flats not far from the river in the south east. There was a light on in one of the ground floor flats. He went to the window and tapped softly. He was still standing at the window when the back door opened. When he looked up, a woman was standing there. Come in, Ted. I've been expecting you, she said very softly. I haven't got any right to ask you for help, he said after a pause. But there's nobody else you can go to, is there? You'd better come in, she answered calmly.

2. Baxter caught a very early train to London. When he got to Scotland Yard the Chief Inspector was waiting for him. When Baxter went into his office, he was sitting at his desk and looking at a photograph. Perhaps it was a good thing you didn't catch Coke after all, he said suddenly. Baxter stared at him in surprise. What do you mean, sir? I don't understand. I have a picture here of a man who knew Coke in the army. He was also a witness at Coke's trial. I've been interested in the man for some time now. Perhaps we'll be able to find out more about him now that Coke's free, the Inspector said, and gave Baxter the photograph. This is the man. Watch him. Follow him everywhere! Baxter looked at the man in the photo carefully. It was Eric Masters.

3. You really shouldn't help me, Kate. It's against the law, Coke said. He and the young woman were sitting in her kitchen. He was eating breakfast hungrily. Kate didn't say anything. I mean, everybody thinks I'm a spy, he went on. But I don't think so, she finally said. Coke finished his breakfast silently. Then he said, You were the only person who ever believed I was innocent. That's why I came to you. Who else will help me? Help you to do what, Ted? Kate asked. Help me to find the real spies, he answered slowly.

10.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Coke saw the headlights...

a) of another motor bike behind him;

b) of another police car in front of him,

c) of another police car behind him.

2. Coke drove to a block of flats in...

a) the south east;

b) south west;

c) north east.

3. The Chief Inspector wanted Baxter...

a) to follow Coke everywhere;

b) to follow Masters everywhere;

c) to arrest Masters.

4. Coke came to Kate because...

a) he wasn't afraid of her;

b) she believed he was innocent;

c) she was brave.

10.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Coke see in his mirror?

2. Why did Coke wave his hand?

3. Where did Coke drive to when he got to London?

4. What did the woman say?

5. What photo was the Chief Inspector looking at?

6. Why was it a good thing they didn't catch Coke?

7. Why did Coke come to Kate?

8. What was Coke going to do?

10.5.4. Compose the plan for this part of the story.

10.6. Scanning practice

10.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind. 1. What was a man charged with?

2. Who defended the criminal?

3. What was the verdict of the jury?

10.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

A strange sentence

A man was brought up before a judge and charged with burglary. He had cut a hole in the side of a tent, had put his head, his right arm and his right shoulder through the hole and had stolen several things belonging to the people sleeping in the tent.

The lawyer of the defendant said that as the man had not entered the tent, he couldn't be convicted of burglary and ought to be set free. The judge however said that while the man as a whole had not committed burglary, his head, his right arm and his right shoulder had.

The jury brought in a verdict of guilty against these parts, which were sentenced to two years imprisonment with hard labour in the state prison. All the rest of the man was found not guilty and discharged.

(142 words)

10.6.3. Answer the questions in 10.6.1. (Books closed.)

10.7. Listening practice

10.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Where was Mr Brigs yesterday at 2 o'clock?

2. Where is his girl-friend?

3. Where was he on January 12?

10.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

10.7.3. Answer the questions in 10.7.1.

10.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

stove

get on fire

grab

thief

awful

10.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

10.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

10.8. Time for fun

10.8.1. Read the following jokes. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. A dangerous criminal had escaped, so the police issued the usual photographs: left profile, front view, and right profile. A few days later they received the following telegram from an Irish detective: Have captured the fellow on the left, and the fellow in the middle, and I'm going soon to get the fellow on the right as well.

2. BARRISTER (speaking to a witness): I want you to tell only the truth, for everything is of importance. How far were you standing from the place of the accident?

WITNESS (without a moment's hesitation): Just four yards, two feet and six inches. BARRISTER (slightly taken aback): I'd like you to tell me how you managed to be so exact. WITNESS: Well, I expected some fool to put me this question and I thought if fit to measure the distance.

? 10.8.2. There's a word missing from each of these proverbs. Choose the correct one from the three possibilities. Translate them.

1. An Englishman's home is his ... (security/ castle/ palace)

2. Let sleeping dogs ... (sleep/dream/lie)

3. Many ... make light work. (servants/hands/ cooks)

4. It takes all sorts to make a ... (world/war/ salad)

5. Prevention is better than ... (cure/punish-ment/medicine)

6. ...is thicker than water. (coffee/blood/soup)

7. A miss is as good as a ... (mister/mile/wife)

8. Birds of a ... flock together. (family/cage/ feather)

9. It's no use crying over ... milk. (sour/spilt/tinned)

10. ... begins at home. (charity/learning/love)

UNIT 11

: sounds [D], [T]

: law-making

: Future Continuous, Future Perfect

: Jane's letter

11.1. Sound right

11.1.1. Listen, look, say:

these with either with Sid with Roy

those bathe neither breathe with wrath

slower

they breathe northern clothe Sam clothe Ruth

there booth southern writhe with Roger

silently

this smooth weather soothe soothe Rue

Simon

that clothe although bathe Sis bathe Rob

11.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. And that's that.

2. That's neither here nor there.

3. There's nothing like leather.

4. I'll do anything rather than that.

5. I don't wish them other than they are.

6. That means nothing other than the usual thing

7. Then there's that brother of mine.

8. They were gathered to their fathers.

9. The Smiths keep themselves to themselves.

10. The less men think the more they talk.

11.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [6]

I

A. They've all gone bathing in the sea. I'm not going bathing in this weather, are you?

B. No, I'm not going bathing.

A. I loathe bathing in the sea in this sort of weather.

B. I loathe bathing.

II

A. And ... while you're up there. Heather, could you pass me that one, too?

B. Oh, you mean this one, Mother?

A. No, not that the other. That one. Yes, that.

B. There you are, Mother. Will that be all?

A. Yes that's all for the moment, Heather.

B. Then I'll shut the cupboard, Mother.

A. Though while you're still up there, could you perhaps pass me that one, too?

B. This one, Mother?

11.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

11.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

11.1.6. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [T] and [D] ( [T] as in thing, [D] as in they).

I

A. Arthur and Martha are such enthusiasts. They are so enthusiastic.

B. What are they so enthusiastic about?

A. Oh, about everything. Among other things, they're both very enthusiastic about the theatre.

. The theatre. Mm.

A. I loathe the theatre. And I loathe enthusiasts.

B. I loathe Arthur and Martha.

II

A. They make my clothes from this special cloth. And they sew them with this special cotton. There's something special about the buttons, too.

B. Mm.

A. Don't you think my clothes look rather special?

B. To tell you the truth, I think your clothes look rather...

A. Yes? Say what you think.

B. Well, yes, I suppose they do look rather special.

11.1.7. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

11.1.8. Read the dialogues in pairs.

11.2. Word-building

(Compound adjectives)

11.2.1. Give word combinations which correspond to compound adjectives. Give their meanings: an apple-eating boy, a watch-making plant, a cloud-touching mountain, horse-loving people, a pain-killing medicine, a food-producing factory, a road-building firm, potato-growing regions.

11.2.2. Make compound adjectives using the following word combinations. Translate them: to carry oil, to grow roses, to make profit, to save money, to melt snow, to break ice, to love sport, to waste time, to hate war.

11.2.3. Translate the following sentences:

1. Some of his money-making movie stars were getting older now.

2. Coffee-drinking farmers sat or stood in the bar.

3. Traffic-directing policemen and one-way streets are clear proof of the existence of a large volume of traffic.

4. I'm going into the house-selling business on my own.

5. Many of the calls came from the news-hunting journalists.

11.3. Full understanding

11.3.1. , , :

President, nation, Capitol, Congress, republic, Senate ['senIt], monument, million, business, culture, avenue ['{vInj?], contrast, bar, elegant.

Geographical and proper names: George Washington, Potomac River [po(u)'toum@k], District of Columbia, the United States, Chicago [SIfi'k?gou], Philadelphia [fil@'delfI@], Detroit, Los Angeles, House of Representatives, Union Square, Lincoln Memorial, Pennsylvania Avenue [,pensIl'venj@], White House, Manhattan, Hudson River, Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, Richmond, Empire State Building ['empaI@], World Trade Centre, Times Square, Harlem.

*11.3.2. , , , :

New words:

letter

native town

to walk

to be interested

law-making

to be born

to publish

to grow

force (.)

School vocabulary:

although, around, to lead, January, favourite, to lie, river, children, language, to die, each, lighting, dirty, tree, town.

*11.3.3. :

Jane's letter

Pete's going to see Nell to-day. But before going to her place he's phoning her.

Hello, Nell! What will you be doing in an hour? I'm going to come to your place, if you aren't against it.

Oh, certainly not. I'll be waiting for you.

And what are you doing now?

Now I'm reading the letter from my American friend Jane. But I'll have finished reading by the time you come.

I'm going then. Bye!

When Pete came Nell showed him Jane's letter. Here it is: New York 23 January, 1987 Dear Nell,

Thank you very much for your interesting letter about Rostov. I hope I'll have the possibility to come to your native town and then we'll be walking about Rostov and I'll be able to see everything myself. And now I'll try to answer all your questions.

First I'll tell you about some of American cities, and although I live in New York, I'll begin with the capital of this country Washington. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The capital owes a great deal to the nations first President, George Washington.

It was Washington who selected the site for the District and laid the cornerstone of the Capitol Building, where Congress meets. It is not the largest city in the US, for it cannot compare in size with cities like New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit and Los Angeles. In the political sense, however, it is the centre of the republic and the most important city in the United States. If you are interested in the law-making centre of the country you must go to the Capitol, with its great House of Representatives and Senate Chamber. Besides there are many places of interest near the Capitol. You can walk around to the back of the Capitol and look across Union Square, all the way down to the Washington Monument and beyond to the Lincoln Memorial. From the Capitol Pennsylvania Avenue leads off to the right to the White House.

But still New York is my favourite city maybe because I was born here. I live in Manhattan which is the name of an island which forms the heart of New York. It lies at the mouth of the Hudson river. There are four other districts of the city: Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. The population of New York is more than 8 million people. It's the heart of America's business and culture; it is the city of skyscrapers. For the visitor New York means the Empire State Building, World Trade Centre, tremendous traffic, neon advertisements, Central Park, Times Square, Harlem, the avenues and famous streets and all these are to be found in Manhattan.

In New York five people out of every eight are foreigners or children of foreigners. Every day, sixty-seven foreign-language papers are published here. The police force employs 25,000 officers but still the crime record is very high in New York. It is the city of contrasts. It's business city which dies each day at five o'clock; pleasure city with bars and cinemas and crowds of people during the night; middle-class city with elegant streets, lighting, neatly painted doors, and the poorest and the dirtiest city where no trees grow...

Here Pete stopped reading because Nell called him to the kitchen for a cup of coffee.

(to be continued)

11.3.4. , 6 . . , .

Model: A. Will 6 . m. be suitable for you?

B. I am sorry to say, it won't. I'll be working at my article. Besides, I...

11.3.5. , , . .

Model: A. What will you be doing at 5 p. m. tomorrow?

B. I'll be working at my English.

11.3.6. , (). , .

Model: A. What shall I be doing at 5 p. m. tomorrow?

B. You'll be driving a car.

A. What shall I have done by tomorrow evening?

B. You'll have studied the map of London.

11.3.7. Future Perfect Future Continuous. .

*11.3.8. -:

1. , ? 2. . 3. . 4. , 10? 5. 1 . 6. , , . 7. . 8. 11 . 9. , , .

11.3.9. (. 11.3.2.). 2 , .

*11.3.10. 2 10 . . ?

CHIC HOU GELES INDIA BALTI

ELPHIA NAPOLIS DETR LAS AGO

WASH MORE NEW OIT STON

DAL INGTON LO SAN PHILAD

YORK

* 11.3.11. . . . .

*11.3.12. -:

, . . , , -. . 1000000 . . . , . . , .

11.4. Practice in communication

(Pleasure and Displeasure)

*11.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Pleasure (excited tone)

1. Good!/That's good.

2. Great!/That's great.

3. Marvellous!/That's marvellous.

4. Terrific!/That's terrific.

5. That's nice./That'll be nice.

6. How exciting!

7. How thrilling!

8. How wonderful!

9. Fantastic!

Displeasure

(dull, displeased tone)

1. Oh, no!

2. Oh, dear!

3. Oh, heavens!

4. What a bore!

5. That's the limit!

11.4.2. Respond with pleasure or displeasure when someone tells you:

1. he's got a new job.

2. he's got a new car.

3. it cost 10,000.

4. he's got a new girl-friend.

5. she's a journalist.

6. they're getting married.

11.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

HE I've made up my mind. We're going to Spain for the holidays.

SHE How exciting! (Marvellous/How thrilling.)

HE I've got a whole fortnight off this year.

SHE A whole fortnight. That's terrific. (That'll be nice.)

HE We'll leave in early July.

SHE Good! Are we taking the car? (Great/Marvellous.)

HE The car? Oh no, we're going on a package tour.

SHE Oh, no! (Oh, really).

HE And I thought we'd take mother with us.

SHE Oh, heavens! Do we have to? (Oh dear/what a bore.) Package tour holidays organised by travel agencies which include board and lodging and travel expenses at reduced prices.

11.4.4. Ask a friend whether he/she would like to go on a holiday with you. Tell him/her where you would like to go and what you might do there. Some of these things will please your friend; others will not.

Model: A. Would you like to go to the Black Sea coast with me?

B. How wonderful!, etc.

11.5. General understanding

11.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 11)

1. Kate was what the Americans call 'a cool character'; nothing seemed to surprise her very much. Perhaps this was because she was an actress. She played small parts in films and on television. She didn't hesitate even for a second when Coke said he wanted her help to find the real spies. All right, she said. I'll start right now. Wait here! What do you mean? Where are you going? Coke asked. You'll find out when I come back. I'll have to get some things now! Before Coke could answer, she was gone.

2. Not very far away, Baxter was still sitting in the Chief Inspector's Office. He was still looking at Masters's photograph. What's so interesting about him? Why do you want me to follow him? he asked. A few days ago, quite by accident we learned a few things about him. Coke might... be innocent after all. It's only a possibility. We want to see what Masters does if Coke contacts him, the Chief Inspector answered. Baxter was even more surprised now. I don't understand, sir. What do you think Masters might do? he said. Masters might try to kill him if he's really afraid of him. But surely that's dangerous, sir. I mean, if Coke is innocent. Masters might kill him... and if he isn't innocent, we're letting him go free. After all. Coke might kill Masters... or someone else! The Chief Inspector looked very serious. That's a chance we'll have to take, Baxter! he said.

3. Time passed very slowly for Coke that morning and afternoon. It was evening before Kate came back. She was carrying a large bundle and a lot of other things. Here. Try these things on, she said. She unwrapped the bundle quickly and showed him a suit, shoes and shirt. There was also a coat with an expensive fur collar, the sort millionaires wear in films. I'll have to change my appearance more than this! he said. Of course you will, she answered. And I've got just the things you'll need! First Kate dyed Coke's hair grey. Then she used some theatrical make-up to give him a much older face. Finally she put a pair of dark glasses on him, gave him a white walking-stick and led him to a mirror. He was surprised when he saw himself. An old blind man stared back at him. And now, Kate said, you'll have to do far more than simply look like an old blind man. You'll have to walk, talk and act like one, too! For the next hour she taught him exactly how to do that. You learn fast. We can go now, she said finally.

4. They were walking towards a taxi-rank. Now just tell me where we're going! Kate said. To a pub in Soho called The Green Rider. Masters used to go there a lot, Coke answered. You mean you think he's one of the spies? I don't know, but he didn't tell the truth at the trial. Why else should he lie? Coke said. They got to Soho half an hour later. The streets were brightly-lit. There were people, pubs, restaurants, cinemas and striptease clubs everywhere. They walked on until Coke suddenly gripped Kate's arm very hard. This is the place. Take me in! he said. They went into the crowded, noisy room.

11.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. The Chief Inspector wanted to see...

a) if Masters kills Coke;

b) if Coke is innocent;

c) what Masters does if Coke contacts him.

2. Kate taught Coke because...

a) he didn't look like an old man:

b) she wanted him to act like a blind man;

c) she was a good actress.

3. Coke thought that Masters was a spy because

a) he used to go to The Green Rider:

b) he was afraid of him;

c) he didn't tell the truth at the trial.

11.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What was Kate?

2. What did the Chief Inspector want to see?

3. Why was the Chief Inspector's plan dangerous?

4. What did Kate bring in the evening?

5. What did Kate do to Coke's hair and face?

6. Whom did Coke see in the mirror?

7. What did Kate teach Coke to do?

8. Where and why were they walking?

9. What made Coke think Masters was one of the spies?

11.5.4. Give the contents of the extract in 4 sentences.

11.6. Scanning practice

11.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. What was the verdict for the students?

2. When was the diplomat kidnapped?

3. What did the prosecution say about him?

11.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Two students convicted of diplomat's murder

Two students who took part in the killing in February last year of an Indian diplomat, Mr. Ravindra Mhatre, were convicted of murder at Birmingham Crown Court.

Mohammed Riaz, aged 23, a student, of Jarrom Street, Leicester, and Abdul Raja, aged 21, a student, of rue de la Butte, Blauchet, Paris, both Kashmiris, were convicted on a majority verdict of eleven to one.

They were remanded in custody for sentencing with four others who have admitted taking part in the kidnapping plot.

The court heard how Mr. Mhatre, the assistant commissioner at the Indian High Commission in Birmingham, was kidnapped as he returned to his home in Bartley Green, on the outskirts of city.

He was held prisoner in Birmingham for three days before being driven to a lane in Leicestershire, where he was shot three times at point-blank range.

Mr. Igor Judge, QC, for the prosecution, said: This happened to a man with no known enemies. It happened to a man who had never caused offence to the defendants or any of those involved in the problems thousands of miles away.

(The Times) (190 words)

11.6.3. Answer the questions in 11.6.1. (Books closed.)

11.7. Listening practice

11.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why was everybody afraid in the saloon?

2. Who hurried to the saloon?

3. Who fired first?

4. What did two cowboys do?

11.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

11.7.3. Answer the questions in 11.7.1.

11.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

on average

currently

regard

relatively

expect

11.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

11.7.6. Tell the contents of the story in Russian as close to the text as possible.

11.8. Time for fun

11.8.1. Read and translate the following jokes.

1. A man was accused of stealing a pair of trousers. After a long examination he was acquitted, because the evidence against him was not sufficiently strong. He stayed, however, in the dock after his aquital had been pronounced. The lawyer who had defended him, observing that he didn't go away, informed him that he was free to go wherever he wanted. The man shook his head slightly, but remained. By this time the court was nearly empty. Again his lawyer told him that he could go. I can't go till all the witnesses against me have left the court, said the man. And why may that be? asked the lawyer. Because of the stolen trousers, sir. I've got them on.

2. A barber went to a lawyer for advice. What shall I do, he asked to a boy who threw a stone in one of my windows and broke a pane? You may make his father pay for it, answered the lawyer. Then, said the barber, I want six shillings from you, sir, for it was your son who did it. And if you hand me over four shillings, said the lawyer, we shall be quits, for my fee is half a pound.

? *11.8.2. How many pounds of earth can you take out of a hole which is one foot square and one foot deep?

? *11.8.3. Can you read the address?

UNIT 12

: sounds [s], [T]

: un-

:

: Jane's letter (cont.)

12.1. Sound right

12.1.1. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference in pronounciation of the sounds [s] and [T]: [s] as in sink, [T] as in think.

I

A. It's not safe.

B. Of course, it's safe.

A. I think, it'll sink. It's only made of thin cloth.

B. It's not cloth, it's plastic. And it's not thin, it's thick.

A. Well, even thick plastic can burst.

B. It's quite safe. The man said so.

A. And anyway, sailing makes me sick.

II

A. Now, look at this, sir this marvellous seventeenth century mirror. It's a thing both of beauty and of worth.

B. Yes,butd'youthink...

A. Oh, I think you'll like the price too, sir.

B. Mmm. Perhaps so. But to me it seems quite worthless.

A. Oh you can have complete faith in it?

B. Yes but can you see your face in it?

12.1.2. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

12.1.3. Read the dialogues in pairs.

12.1.4. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronunciation of the sounds [T] and [t]: [9] as in three, [t] as in tree.

I

A. I think I shall plant two or three of these trees.

B. Mmm. Two or three trees would be nice. Where do you think you'll plant them?

A. On both sides of the path, I think.

B. And when the trees are tall...

A. I shall be a hundred and thirty.

II

A. I'm taking mathematics and theology.

B. And who teaches you math?

A. Mr. Theodore.

B. But I thought Mr. Theodore taught theology.

A. He taught theology last term. But the math teacher left and now Mr. Theodore will be taking us for maths.

B. Well, who's taking you for theology now?

A. Mrs. Theodore.

B. I didn't know Mrs. Theodore had studied theology.

A. That is how she met Mr. Theodore.

12.1.5. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

12.1.6. Read the dialogues in pairs.

12.2. Word-building

12.2.1. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:

unjust, unfortunately, unwritten, unfair, unknown, unnecessary, unlock, unload, unconscious.

12.2.2. Perephrase the following word combinations using prefix un-;

not equal in size; not familiar names; not a happy woman; a believable fact; not a healthy place; not human treatment; not finished work; one who doesn't believe something; lack of certainty.

12.3. Full understanding

12.3.1. , , :

specialist, jurisdiction [,?u@rIs'dIkS@n], national, to organize, veto ['v?tou], to block, bill, Federal Court of Appeals [a'p?lz].

* 12.3.2. , , , :

New words:

Chief Justice

to approve [@'pr?v]

circuit ['s?kIt]

bench (.)

judiciary [??'dIS(@)rI]

existing

to pass a law

to issue ['Isj?] ( )

School vocabulary:

field, to belong, white.

12.3.3. :

Jane's letter

(continued)

...You asked me to tell some words about the judicial system of the USA. Though I'm not a specialist in this field I'll try to do my best. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. It's a beautiful building of white marble. Above the main entrance the words are written Equal Justice Under Law. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills. The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is determined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like the system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts...

(to be continued)

12.3.4. 10 Passive Voice. , , .

12.3.5. , . Passive Voice.

1. The door of the house, to force, at 10 p. m. yesterday.

2. The old man, to beat, to tie.

3. The most valuable things, to take.

4. The fingerprints, to find, on many pieces of furniture.

5. The knife, to leave, by one of the burglars.

6. The car, to use, by them, and the traces of it, to find, near the house.

7. The old man, to take to the hospital.

12.3.6. , , . . Future Simple.

Model: Tomorrow at 5 p. m. you'll be taken to Drama Theatre.

12.3.7. . , Passive Voice :

Oh, no; you see...;

The fact is that...;

On the contrary...

1. You took my text-book yesterday.

2. You fell asleep at my lesson.

3. I saw you kiss this girl/boy.

4. I know you are going to miss my lesson tomorrow.

5. You broke the window in our classroom yesterday.

6. You hid my bag and I can't find it.

7. You beat your neighbour.

12.3.8. . , .

Model: (to break the window) The window was broken by...

1. to tear note-books;

2. to break the teacher's table;

3. to eat smb's apple;

4. to hide student's coats;

5. to bring monkey to the lesson;

6. to write a letter to the teacher;

7. to scold the teacher.

*12.3.9. -:

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .

12.3.10. . Passive Voice. ?

This story was told by Charles Dickens. During a sea-trip a young girl was courted by five young men. She was at a loss whom to choose. She was advised to jump overboard and then marry the one who would be jumped in after her. The girl did as she was told. She was jumped into the sea and was followed by four of the men. When they were fished out of the water by the sailors she was at a loss even more than before. What shall I do with these four wet men? she was asked the captain. Take the dry one, was the old sea-wolf's advice. And so she did.

12.3.11. , .

12.3.12. () ().

Supreme Court 1. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by this court.

Court of Appeal 2. It has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress.

District Court 3. It hears appeals from lower courts.

12.3.13. , (-).

Courts The government can be sued for of Claims unpaid salary, property taken for public use and personal injuries for which the Federal government is responsible. The Court of Claims consists of a chief justice and 4 associate justices who are appointed by the President with Senate approval.

Customs This court deals with all the cases

Court arising at the customs when goods enter the country. This court was established in 1890 and is located in New York where most of its business is conducted.

Court of The court hears appeals from

Customs decisions of the Customs Court and Patent and the Patent Office. Its judge-Appeals ments and decrees are final.

* 12.3.14. , . . .

12.4. Practice in communication

(Refusal)

* 12.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Here are some ways of refusing to comply with someone's suggestions.

1. No, thank you. I don't want to.

2. No, certainly not.

3. Why should I?

4. Oh, no!

5. Never!

6. Good heavens, no!

12.4.2. Ask someone why they don't:

1. buy a television;

2. call the police;

3. go into politics;

4. get a new job;

5. have a haircut;

6. take up yoga;

7. become a doctor.

He/she will refuse to comply with your suggestions.

12.4.3. Look through the dialogue and then dramatize it.

HE Why don't you sit down and relax, darling?

SHE Because I don't want to.

HE Well, come and talk to me then.

SHE Certainly not.

HE May I turn on the radio then?

SHE Turn on the radio? What for?

HE So that we can sit together and listen to some music.

SHE Listen to some music? And who'll cook the dinner? Will you?

HE OK, I will. But let's go to a disco after dinner.

SHE To a disco? Good heavens, no! You know I hate pop.

12.4.4. Make any suggestions you like. You partner will refuse to comply.

12.5. General understanding

12.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 12)

1. Kate led Coke to a table and then went to the bar to get their drinks. Masters isn't here, Coke said. Surely you didn't expect to walk in and find him, just like that? No, I suppose not.

They had been there for over an hour. More people came in, but Masters was not among them. It was getting towards closing time when the barman came to their table. May I take you empty glasses? he asked politely. Coke touched him on his sleeve. Does a man named Eric Masters ever come in here? he asked. He did not notice the man standing at the bar who stared at him in the mirror when he mentioned Masters' name.

2. The barman thought for a second. There's a man named Eric Masters who comes in here a lot. He's a military type. Is that who you mean? he asked. Coke tried to sound casual when he asked his next question. Has he been here today? The barman nodded. Yes, he was in this afternoon. I don't suppose you know where I can find him now? Coke said. I'm afraid not. All I know about him is that he has an antique shop somewhere near Red Lion Square, he answered.

The barman was shouting Last orders, please when Coke and Kate left. Kate led him through the crowded, bright streets. When they got to Shaftesbury Avenue, Kate called a taxi. Neither she nor Coke noticed the man who was so close behind them in the crowd that he heard Kate say Red Lion Square, please to the driver. They did not see him get into a cab and follow them.

3. Would you mind driving round the Square once? Kate asked the driver. Red Lion Square was deserted. It's obviously not on the square itself, Coke said. They got out the taxi, paid the driver and started exploring. There were antique shops on several of the side streets but Masters' name was not among the other names of the owners.

Half an hour later they were still looking. Kate kept glancing over her shoulder. She had the uncomfortable feeling that someone was following them but she couldn't see anybody.

I don't like wandering round the dark streets at this hour, she said. I don't like doing it, either, but what else can we do? We can't stop looking now. It might be our last chance. Coke answered. Suddenly something in the window of a shop across the road caught his eye. The street was very dark but the thing gleamed. It reflected the light of a passing car. They crossed the street. The thing was an old military sabre and it was in a window marked Antique Weapons and Military Antiques. There were old pistols, helmets and other swords in the window. Coke became excited. This must be it! he said. There was no name on the window but there was a phone number on the door. Coke copied it down.

12.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. When Coke asked the barman about Eric Masters...

a) the man at the bar stared at him;

b) the barman stared at him in surprise;

c) the barman looked at the man at the door bar.

2. When Kate and Coke took the taxi...

a) they noticed the man behind them;

b) the man followed them in a cab;

c) the man lost sight of them.

3. When Kate glanced over her shoulder...

a) she noticed the man following them;

b) she could not see anybody;

c) she saw the light of a passing car.

12.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Coke ask the barman about?

2. What didn't Coke notice?

3. What did they learn from barman about Masters?

4. What did the man who followed them do?

5. What was there on the side streets of the square?

6. Why did Kate keep glancing over her shoulder?

7. What caught Coke's eye?

8. How was the window marked?

9. What was there in the window and on the door?

12.5.4. Compose the plan for this part of the story.

12.6. Scanning practice

12.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Why did Mr. Newbery shoot?

2. What was the judgement?

3. What did the judgement cause?

4. Was Mr. Newbery right, trying to defend himself?

12.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

82-year-old man who shot burglar must pay him $ 4000

An 82-year-old man who shot a burglar who was trying to break into his allotment shed was ordered to pay him $ 4000 damages yesterday. Ted Newberey had been sleeping in a shed to try to stop vandals destroying his allotment. He fired through a hole in the door when he heard voices outside. Mark Revill, 28, was hit in the chest and arm by 50 shotgun pellets as he and another man tried to smash their way into the shed.

They had gone there to steal, knowing that the pensioner had a television set and a washing machine in the shed.

Mr Newbery had slept in the shed every night for four years because of vandalism, the court was told by the defense. That night, he heard a loud banging on the door and a voice saying: If the old man's in there, we'll do him. He was absolutely terrified, and fired the gun in self-defense. As the result of the incident, Mr Revill lost two fingers, and has partially lost the use of one arm

Mr Justice Rougier ruled that Mr. Newbery had acted out of all proportion to the threat. He had not acted in panic, but had planned his response in advance, and it had been reckless to shoot the shotgun through a hole in the door, while not being able to see what he was shooting at. Mr Justice Rougier awarded Revill $4000 for his injuries and loss of earnings.

The judgement coursed an immediate public outcry. Tim Molloney the Mayor of Erewash, launched an appeal to raise money to pay Mr Newbery's bill, and started the fund with a contribution of $100. Since then, money has been pouring in from all over the country. A London restaurateur was one of the dozens to call The Times to express his anger over the affair. Husseyin Ozer, 42, said he would sell his Rolex watch to pay the award. I'm outraged. The old saying that an Englishman's home is his castle doesn't seem to be true any more, he said.

(350 words)

12.6.3. Answer the questions in 12.6.1. (Books closed.)

12.7. Listening practice

12.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why wasn't the student driving carefully?

2. What was the girl wearing and what was she carrying?

3. Where was the dog sitting?

12.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

12.7.3. Answer the questions in 12.7.1.

12.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

respond

violence

coach

victim

scream

kick

brick

half-conscious

stitch

nightmare

regret

12.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it in Russian.

12.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible. You may do it in Russian.

12.8. Time for fun

12.8.1. Read the following jokes. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. A friend of the judge dropped in for a visit one morning before court opened and looked around. Goodness, you certainly have a lot of criminals to try this morning, haven't you? he observed.

Oh, not so many, answered the judge. You are looking at the wrong bench those are the lawyers.

2. Lawyer: Now that we have won, will you tell me confidentially if you stole the money?

Client: Well, after hearing you talk in court yesterday, I am beginning to think I didn't.

3. Judge: Have you anything to say before I pass sentence on you?

Prisoner: Yes, Your Honour, I should like you to have your lunch first.

? *12.8.2. A word has five letters. Take away two, and only one remains. Guess which word it is.

? 12.8.3. Lots of English words sound alike but have different meaning. Can you complete the sentences using words from the list below?

1. A. That ... of shoes cost 22 and the heels fell off after three days.

B. Would you like some grapes or a ... with your cheese?

2. A. I got so ... in the history lecture I fell asleep.

B. There will be a ... meeting tomorrow.

3. A. Sorry I'm late; I went ... my bus stop

B. He ... his driving test the second time he took it.

4. A. His relationship with his mother lies at the ... of his personality problems.

B. The police recommended an alternative ... to avoid heavy traffic.

5. A. In the US, you buy milk in..., in Britain, in pints.

B. She's got a new ... crystal watch.

(root, route; board, bored; pear, pair; quarts, quartz; passed, past)

UNIT 13

: sounds [D], [s], [z]

: -ity

: ( Continuous, Perfect)

: Jane's letter (cont.)

13.1. Sound right

13.1.1. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference in pronounciation of the sounds [D], [s], [z]. [D] as in theirs, [z] as in buzz, [s] as in bus.

I

A. What's that, Father?

B. It's a buzzer, Lesley.

A. What does the buzzer do, Father?

B. The bus conductor presses the buzzer, and then that stops the bus.

A. But doesn't the bus driver stop and start the bus?

B. Yes, he does.

A. But you said the buzzer stops the bus, Father.

B. Lesley, would you like these ... sweets?

II

A. The sun's fabulous! The sky's blue! This is the sort of weather for bathing, Daisy!

B. This is the sort of weather for sleeping for hours on these marvellous sands!

A. Oh, let's bathe!

B. Please go to sleep, Liz!

A. Lazy Daisy!

B. Busy Lizzie!

13.1.2. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

13.1.3. Read the dialogues in pairs.

13.2. Word-building

13.2.1. Give Russian equivalents for the following nouns with the suffix -ity:

activity, reality, stability, responsibility, formality, cruelty, simplicity, humanity, seniority, popularity.

13.3. Full understanding

13.3.1. , , :

problem, statistical, guarantee [g{r@n't?], phenomenon [fI'nOmIn@n], conflict, propaganda, television, film, programme, scene [s?n], administration, international. * 13.3.2. , , , :

New words:

to face ( )

to violate [vaI@leIt]

violence

violent

to rob

neighbour ['neIb@]

to kill

to murder ['m?d@]

murderer [m'?d@r@]

possibility

criminal

burglary ['b?gl@rI]

to watch TV

juvenile ['??v@naIl]

reason

School vocabulary:

to rise, dark, to buy, to get

*13.3.3. :

Jane's letter (cont.)

...One more thing I'm going to tell you concerns the problem which faces our society now. I mean the problem of violence. The latest statistical data says that violent crime is rising constantly in this country. I know about it not only by newspapers reports. I've been robbed twice already and I'm afraid to leave my flat when it becomes dark. But even staying at home isn't a guarantee for safety. My old neighbour had been killed in his own flat and as usual the murderers hadn't been found by the police. Violence has become an accepted way of life in America. There are different explanations for this phenomenon. One of them is the possibility to buy any kind of weapons at gun shops everywhere in the US. The weapon is being bought not only by criminals but by law-abiding citizens too to protect themselves.

The growth of using drugs is one more reason. To buy drugs teenagers need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Another reason is the propaganda of violence by mass media and especially television and films. Watching TV you are being fed with all kinds of killings, beatings, gunfights and so on. Even the special programmes for children are full of scenes of violence. And it's not surprising that juvenile crime record is constantly growing. I'm sorry I took so much of your time telling about my city and country, but I hope it was interesting for you. I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon. Please, give my best wishes to Pete.

Yours sincerely, Jane.

13.3.4. Passive Voice. , . .

1. The student is being examined. Don't enter the room.

2. The students are examined twice a year.

3. The paper was published yesterday.

4. The paper has been published already.

5. The paper had been published by 7 o'clock yesterday.

6. The paper was being published at this time yesterday.

7. The letter will be sent tomorrow.

8. The letter will have been sent tomorrow by 7 o'clock.

INDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT

Present __________________________

Past _____________________________

Future ____________________________

13.3.5. , . . . ( Passive Voice.)

Model: I. You invited the man to the restaurant.

S. Oh, no, I was invited to the restaurant by him.

1. You've struck this man first.

2. You had robbed several persons before we arrested you.

3. You said: I'll phone him at 5.

4. You were watching somebody when they met you.

5. You asked him to help you.

6. You always cheat people.

13.3.6. , . . .

Stamps

In 1840, Rowland Hill's Penny Stamp Act became law. Under this law, letters... for by weight. Previously, they... according to the distance or number of sheets. It also became compulsory to pay for postage in advance. This... before and often people had refused to pay for letters which ... to them. Stamps ... in 1840 as an easy way of checking that postage... As Britain was the first country to use stamps widely, the country's name... on them. However, the head of the ruling monarch appears on every stamp.

previously

sheet

to refuse

to charge

compulsory

to deliver

(had been paid; had not been done; were paid; were introduced; had been charged; had refused; were delivered; was not written)

13.3.7. Passive Voice. . ?

*13.3.8. -:

1. ? , . , , . . 20. 2. . . 20 . 3. ? . . 4. . , . 5. , . , , .

13.3.9. 3 : Violence, violent, violate. .

* 13.3.10. . , :

1, 2, 3 deprive smb. of his property

4, 5, 6, 6 put to death

3, 7, 1, 8, 6, 9, 1, 10 crime of breaking into a house by night to steal

11,7, 12, 13, 14, 5, 6, 13 - young person, young offender

12, 5, 2, 6, 13, 14, 15, 13 - conduct accompanied by great force

16, 9, 17, 15, 18 - keep the eyes on

NOTE

12,13,1,14,2,14 3,1,5,9,14 -9,14,13, 5, 8, 18, 3, 2, 7, 1.

* 13.3.11. . ? .

* 13.3.12. .

13.3.13. . .

*13.3.14. . ?

* 13.3.15. -:

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. 3 .

13.4. Practice in communication

*13.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Ways of giving sympathy and encouragement to someone.

A. I've failed my exams.

B. 1. I'm so sorry.

2. I'm sorry to hear that.

3. What a shame!

4. What bad luck!

5. Never mind!

6. Cheer up!

7. You mustn't worry (about it...)

8. It could be worse.

13.4.2. Tell your friends:

1. your car was stolen;

2. your house was burgled;

3. you've had your car licence endorsed;

4. your boy/girl friend has left you;

5. when you got to the airport your flight had been cancelled.

He/she will give sympathy and encouragement.

13.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

JOHN: I dare say you've heard about my breakdown on the motorway.

TOM: Yes. What bad luck! But cheer up! It could have been worse.

JOHN: Could it! They tell me it needs a new engine.

TOM: Oh, no! I am sorry. It'll cost you a fortune.

JOHN: Yes, over $500 I believe.

: 500! Oh, that is bad luck. You poor chap.

JOHN: Still, as you say, it could have been a lot worse. I might have been killed.

TOM: Quite. It's not the end of the world. But I know how you feel. 500 is a lot of money.

13.4.4. A friend is speaking to you about a number of problems he has been having recently. Give him sympathy and encouragement.

13.5. General understanding

13.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 13)

1. It was around midnight when the phone rang in Eric Masters' flat. The voice on the other end was hard and cold. This is Hugo, it said. There was an old blind man in the pub. He had a young woman with him. He asked about you and then went to your shop. Masters blinked in surprise. His voice cracked slightly. But I don't know anybody like that. What did they want? How do I know, you fool? Just watch out for them, that's all! Hugo said furiously and hung up. Masters slept very badly that night.

2. Eric Masters was cleaning an antique pistol when the phone rang in his shop. He heard a young woman's voice at the other end. I believe you buy and sell antique weapons, she said. Yes, that's right. I'm particularly interested in old firearms. My father is too. He wants to sell some of 17-th century pistols. Would you be interested? Certainly. If you bring them to my shop, I'll look at them and give you a price. Well, unfortunately my father's blind. It's very difficult for him to get about. Would you mind coming to our place? Masters managed to answer calmly. Well... er... my assistant is out to lunch. I'll come over when he comes back. Is that all right? He noted the address she gave him and hung up. His hands were trembling slightly. These must be the people Hugo told me about, he thought. He reached into a drawer and took out a pistol. This one was not an antique. It was a small, black, nasty-looking automatic. Perhaps the old man really does want me to look at his pistols, he thought when he was getting into his white Jaguar and driving off.

3. He felt safer when Kate opened the door. She was slim, almost delicate-looking. Good afternoon, he said. I'm Eric Masters. You rang my shop earlier. She smiled. I hope I haven't put you to any trouble, she said pleasantly, and led him into the sitting-room. Masters glanced suspiciously at the old, blind man sitting on the sofa. At first he seemed harmless enough, but there was something familiar about the man's face that made Masters look more carefully at him. I'll go and get the pistols. Kate said. Masters stayed where he was, where he could see everything and where nobody could come in behind him. The old blind man didn't move. Are you a collector too? Masters asked. The old man simply nodded. The woman came out of the bedroom with a large black case. They're all in here, she said. If you come over here, to the table, we can look at them. My father doesn't really want anyone else to have them, but it's a question of money.

Masters kept his eyes fastened on the old man's face as he walked towards the table. He was halfway there when the old man raised his face slightly. The sudden movement made Masters stop. The more he looked at that face, the more suspicious he became. Suddenly it dawned on him. He stared at both of them. They were both waiting for him to come nearer. It was the old man's nose and lips that made Masters think of Coke. He reached for his pistol.

13.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Masters took a pistol with him because...

a) he was sure he was going to meet Coke;

b) he always had it with him;

c) he felt safer with it.

2. Masters looked more carefully at the man because...

a) he recognized Coke;

b) there was something familiar about the man's face;

c) he recognized his voice.

3. Masters stopped because...

a) there was a sudden movement of the old man;

b) he became very suspicious;

c) they were staring at him.

13.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What news did Hugo tell Masters?

2. What did the woman speaking over the phone want?

3. What did Eric promise?

4. What did he take out of a drawer?

5. What made Masters look more carefully at an old man?

6. What made Masters think of Coke?

13.5.4. Give the main idea of this part of the story in 2-3 sentences.

13.6. Scanning practice

13.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Who was placed behind the doors?

2. What would happen if the door which concealed the tiger was opened?

3. What would happen if the door which concealed the lady was opened?

4. What was the princess" decision?

13.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

The lady or the tiger?

Once a king had decreed that every person accused of crime should be placed in a large room, where, in the presence of the king and the court he is to open one of two doors which were exactly alike. Behind one door was a hungry, man-eating tiger and behind the other a beautiful lady, dressed as a bride. If he opened the door which concealed the tiger he was considered to be guilty and put to death, if he opened the door which concealed the lady, he was considered innocent and was immediately married to her. No previous ties were allowed to be an obstacle to marriage. The disposition of the lady and the tiger was, of course, a secret.

Now it happened that a young noble man who was rather poor won the love of the king's daughter; and being suspected by the king was imprisoned and brought to trial before two doors. The princess discovered behind which doors the lady and the tiger were to be placed. She didn't want, of course, her lover to be eaten by tiger, but she also didn't want him to become the husband of some other lady. At length her mind was made up. On the day of the trial she managed to signal her lover to open the right-hand door. This he immediately did. The author leaves the question to you: Who came out of the opened door the lady or the tiger?

(250 words)

13.6.3. Answer the questions in 13.6.1. (Books closed.)

13.7. Listening practice

13.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text:

1. When was the director attacked?

2. What are the police going to do?

3. Why was the director sure about the time?

4. Why couldn't he see the face of the attacker?

5. How did he break his leg?

13.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

13.7.3. Answer the questions in 13.7.1.

13.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

pushchair

pile

security guard

stuff

to be embarrassed

obviously

13.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

13.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

13.8. Time for fun

13.8.1. Read the following newspaper stories. Try to retell them. You may do it in Russian.

1. Swallowed watch Not returned

A schoolgirl of 13, accused of stealing a wristwatch was said yesterday at Castle Eden juvenile court to have swallowed it accidentally when a teacher made inquiries. Hospital x-rays showed it inside her but later there was no sign of the watch and it had not been returned. The girl was put on one year's probation and was ordered to pay compensation.

2. Stole bottle of wine gets seven years

After pleading guilty to stealing a bottle of wine, Robert Grook, 72, of no fixed address, was yesterday sentenced by the chairman of a London court to 7 years of confinement.

The prosecutor said it was obvious that Grook broke a window with the intention of being arrested. He said the prisoner had not eaten for a week.

Police said that Grook had 57 previous convictions, and when he broke the window he had been out of prison for only six days.

3. Twelve old ladies arrested for gambling

Police caught 12 old ladies - the oldest was 87 -playing cards in a house, in one of the Hague's most respectable districts.

All 12 were arrested, as gambling is illegal in Holland. Police said the stakes were high and they seized several thousand guilders. (A guilder is worth almost two shillings.)

? 13.8.2. What is the longest English word?

UNIT 14

: sounds [D], [d], [Z], [z]

: judgemade

: It is ... that; the ... the

: Steve tells about English system of law

14.1. Sound right

14.1.1. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [6] and [d] (as in their and as in dare.)

I

A. May we play in the mud. Mother?

B. Don't you dare play there!

A. Father doesn't mind if we play in the mud,

Mother. B. Father doesn't wash the dirty clothes, dear.

II

A. I'm the daughter. Then there's Father and

Mother and my two brothers. B. I'll write that down. A. And then there's Dennis, Doctor. B. Dennis?

A. Dennis is the dog. B. Oh, the dog.

A. That's D-E-N-N-I-S! Dennis, Doctor.

B. Dennis yes, I've got that down. Er ... now ... emm.

14.1.2. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

14.1.3. Read the dialogues in pairs.

14.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds. ([Z] as in measure, [D] as in rather, [z] as in does)

I

A. But how can you measure pleasure?

B. You can measure anything.

A. But pleasure's ... immeasurable.

B. It's not immeasurable.

A. And if it were measurable than it wouldn't be half so pleasurable.

II

A. Who's that, over there?

B. Oh, that's Sir Basil. He's the Club Treasurer.

A. I see.

B. He's come to watch television.

A. And does Sir Basil always sleep when television's on?

B. Usually he does.

A. Ah.

B. And occasionally he snores. Rather noisily.

A. Yes.

B. As you must have noticed.

14.1.5. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

14.1.6. Read the dialogues in pairs.

14.2. Word-building

(Compound adjectives)

14.2.1. Translate the following compound adjectives:

tobacco-stained fingers, a linoleum-covered floor, university-trained engineers, a hand-written note, a tailor-made suit, lamp-lit pavements, windblown leaves, carpet-covered floor, a dog-bitten boy.

14.2.2. Make compound adjectives according to the following word combinations. Translate them.

covered with clouds, painted by hand, fed with milk, shaded with trees, made by machine, filled with water, driven by wind, educated at Harvard.

14.2.3. Translate into Russian:

1. Her hands were work-reddened. 2. A dust-and-mud-stained car was parked beside a store. 3. The two women didn't seem troubled by her tear-stained face. 4. He looked up at the glass-enclosed balcony. 5. The convoy was composed of five American-made army trucks.

14.3. Full understanding

14.3.1. , , :

professional statute ['st{tj?t], precedent [presId@nt], process ['prouses], analogy [@'n{l@?I], scheme [sk?m], magistrate ['m{?IstreIt], appeal, central, final [faInl], appellate [@'pelIt].

* 14.3.2. , , , :

New words:

to do everything possible

judicial [??'dIS@l]

civil law

criminal law

common law

judgement

to draw

to try

lay

justice of the peace

county

crown

accused [@'kj?zd]

trial [traI@l]

jury [?u@rI]

Geographical and proper names:

United Kingdom, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Old Bailey, High Court, Court of Appeal.

School vocabulary:

to remember, word, March, to listen to, case, to mean, way, to sit, main, early.

* 14.3.3. :

Steve tells about English system of law

Do you remember that Steve promised Pete to come to Rostov? Steve's the man of his word. It was by the end of March when Steve had arrived in Rostov and he had only a few days at his disposal. Pete and Nell did everything possible to show him the sights of Rostov. The more I see your city the more I like it. Steve used to say. And in the evening they were having long and interesting talks. In their talks they often touched their professional subjects. And the longer they talked the more things they wanted to discuss. One of these evenings Steve told them about English law and English judicial system. Would you like to listen to his story?

There are three separate systems of law in the United Kingdom: the legal systems and law courts of 1. England and Wales; 2. Scotland; 3. Northern Ireland. However, there are some common features to all systems in the United Kingdom: the sources of law, the distinction between civil law and criminal law. The sources of law include: 1. written law (i. e. statutes); 2. unwritten law (i. e. Common law and Equity) based on judicial precedent. We also call the common law as case law or judge-made law. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any judge who has the similar set of facts must decide the case in the same way as in the earlier judgement. In other words, the judge uses the process of analogy. And it is in this way that the generations of judges have built up the Common law. The structure of courts in England and Wales looks like this. (And Steve drew such scheme of court system.)

HOUSE OF LORDS

COURT OF APPEAL COURT OF APPEAL

CRIMINAL CIVIL DIVISION

CROWN COURTS HIGH COURT

Judge 13 judges

2 Magistrates COUNTY COURT

Jury Judge and Jury

MAGISTRATES' COURT MAGISTRATES' COURT

3 Magistrates or 3 Magistrates

1 Stipendiary Magistrate

Criminal Civil

It is the Magistrates' Courts (sometimes called police courts) that try the majority of all criminal cases and some civil cases. Magistrates' courts are presided over by lay magistrates (also called justices of the peace J.P.s)who work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between 2 and 7 magistrates. In a few large cities there are also stipendiary magistrates who sit alone and have legal training. County courts are the main civil courts and the Crown Court deals with all the more serious criminal cases. It also hears appeals from magistrates' courts. The accused has the right to trial by jury. There is the Central Criminal Court in London (the Old Bailey). The High Court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts. The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals and the House of Lords is the final appellate tribunal. The judges in the House of Lords are the ten Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (the law lords).

14.3.4. , . , . , . ( It is ... that ....)

Model: S. I came home at 10.

I. It was at 11.30 when you came.

1. I met her yesterday at that time.

2. I was at home at that time.

3. First I went to the cinema.

4. I usually take 6.30 train.

5. I think I saw John there.

6. I'm to meet him tomorrow at 6.

7. I only took 10 roubles.

8. Tommy told me about this flat.

14.3.5. It is ... that. .

14.3.6. , 2-3 . Model: It's the sweets that she likes most of all.

14.3.7. . , . It is ... that ....

1. Written law is the only source of English law.

2. The English judges only use statutes in trying cases.

3. The High Court tries the majority of all criminal cases.

4. There are stipendiary magistrates everywhere in England.

5. County Courts are the main criminal courts.

14.3.8. -. ( It is ... that ....)

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. , .

14.3.9. the...the.... .

14.3.10. , . , the ... the.

14.3.11. . I'm sorry you are wrong, I can't agree with you.

1. The harder you work the less you know.

2. The more you eat the thinner you grow.

3. The less you walk the healthier you are.

4. The more you speak English the worse you know it.

5. The better the weather the worse your mood is.

6. The longer you stay after classes the luckier you feel.

*14.3.12. -:

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , .

14.3.13. ? . 5 .

14.3.14. () ()

1. Magistrates' a) hears all civil cases that cannot be

Courts decided by county courts;

2. County Courts b) is the final appellate tribunal;

3. Crown Courts c) the main civil courts;

4. High Court d) try the majority of all criminal ca-

5. Court of Appeal ses and some civil cases;

6. House of Lords e) hears both criminal and civil appeals;

f) deals with all the more serious criminal cases.

14.3.15. , justice of the peace stipendiary magistrates. ?

14.3.16. , . , .

* 14.3.17. , . . ?

* 14.3.18. , , . , .

14.4. Practice in communication

(Belief and Disbelief)

*14.4.1. Read and try to remember:

Belief Disbelief

I can quite (well) easily I don't/can't believe it.

believe it/that. It can't be true.

(Of course) I believe it. Surely not!

You can't expect me to believe

that.

You must be joking.

You are not serious.

14.4.2. Express belief or disbelief in the following statements:

1. I speak ten languages fluently.

2. I've never told a lie in my life.

3. I never get up late.

4. I haven't got any money.

5. I love you.

Someone makes these statements. You express belief or disbelief.

14.4.3. Read the following dialogue and then try to dramatize it.

A. We scored six goals.

B. Sure.ly not!

A. And I scored three of them.

B. You are not serious.

A. We had extra time of course.

B. I can quite believe that.

14.4.4. Complete the following dialogue as you wish using some of the expressions you have learned.

A. I only need four hours sleep.

B. ...

A. Sometimes even less.

B. ...

A. The less I sleep the better I feel.

B. ...

A. And the more I sleep the less I work.

B. ...

14.5. General understanding

14.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 14)

1. When Masters pulled out the automatic, Kate was standing between him and Coke. She could see that he was almost hysterical and was probably going to shoot.

It's you, Coke! he burst out and came nearer. Kate was standing in his way now and he put out a hand to push her away. Coke could hardly believe his eyes. One moment Masters was pointing a pistol at him and the next he was lying on the floor; gasping for breath. Kate had thrown him over her shoulder. I once played a policewoman in a film and I had to learn some judo, she said rather casually and looked down at Masters.

2. Masters groaned. He, too, could hardly believe what had happened. It all seemed incredible. He shook his head. He decided that it was probably a nightmare, a horrible dream. And now that you're here, perhaps you wouldn't mind answering some questions. Coke said. Masters groaned again. Questions? What questions? he mumbled. I want you to tell me everything that happened that evening you sent me to Epping Forest, Coke said in a low voice. Masters now realised that it was not a dream. I don't know what you are talking about, Masters answered. I think you do, Coke said. You can't make me tell you anything! Masters waited to see what Coke was going to do next. He couldn't take his eyes off the automatic in Coke's hands. I'll give you five seconds to begin answering my questions. Then I'll shoot, Coke answered and pulled back the safety-catch. The pistol was now ready to fire. Then he began counting.

3. But I know nothing! Masters protested. Coke had already raised the pistol and simply said, One! Masters said nothing. Two! Coke brought the pistol nearer. You can't frighten me! Masters shouted. Three! Masters saw Coke had already taken aim. How can I tell you something I don't know? Masters demanded. Four. Masters watched Coke's finger beginning to press the trigger. All right, all right, I'll tell you anything you want, but for God's sake, put the pistol down! Masters gasped.

14.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Kate managed to throw Masters down because...

a) she was very strong;

b) she learned judo;

c) Coke helped her.

2. Coke wanted to know...

a) why Masters had a pistol;

b) why Masters had come;

) why Masters had sent him to Epping Forest.

3. Masters agreed to tell everything because...

a) Coke was going to shoot;

b) he knew something;

c) Coke told him to do it.

14.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions.

1. What could Kate see?

2. What did she do?

3. What did Masters think?

4. What did Coke want Masters to tell?

5. How much time did Coke give Masters to think?

6. Did Masters agree to tell what Coke wanted him to?

14.5.4. Compose the plan for this part of the story.

14.6. Scanning practice

14.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. Who was Mr Aristos Constantinou?

2. When and where the murder was committed?

3. What are the police looking for?

4. How many intruders were there according to the police?

14.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Burglary theory after wealthy businessman is shot dead

A big police investigation was under way in north London after a wealthy businessman died when intruders broke into his luxury home.

Mr. Aristos Constantinou, aged 40, was shot a number of times after he and his wife Elena arrived home at their detached house in the Bishop's Avenue, Hampstead, after a New Year party.

Detectives were waiting to interview Mrs. Constantinou, who is in the twenties, to discover what happened in the house at about 1.30 in the morning. The house was empty apart from Mr. and Mrs. Constantinou, whose three children were staying with friends for the night.

Police believe the intruders were burglars and discount any connection between the shooting and Mr. Constantinou's Cypriot origin. A police spokesman said that although a full inventory was not complete some cash is thought to be missing.

The police need to discover whether the couple came home and chanced upon the intruders, whether the intruders broke in after the Constantinous had arrived home and whether there was an attempt to force the couple to reveal the whereabouts of jewellery and cash.

The dead man was an extremely wealthy dress manufacturer with offices in London's West End. His home is in one of the most expensive roads in London.

Running up to the Kenwood estate in Hampstead, the road is known locally as Millionaire's Row. Many of the houses are large, detached buildings with elaborate security precautions. Many foreign families live in the area.

The investigation is being headed by Det Sup Robert Green, who has set up a squad of detectives at Finchley police station. The police are looking for witnesses who may have seen anything suspicious in the area of Hampstead Heath between midnight and 1.45 a.m.

It is likely that the intruders had a car nearby, but police have not disclosed any sightings.

A Scotland Yard spokesman said the victim was shot several times but he refused to say what type of gun was used. There were signs of forced entry to the house and first indications suggest there were two intruders he said.

(255 words)

14.6.3. Answer the questions in 14.6.1.

14.7. Listening practice

14.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why didn't one of them like living in London?

2. Why do people sleep in parks?

3. Why does the other man prefer big cities?

4. Why do young people go to London?

14.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

14.7.3. Answer the questions in 14.7.1.

14.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

accident

fault

pain

fragile

compassion

sensible..

consent

disturb

14.7.5. Listen to the dialogue. Be ready to give the contents of it.

14.7.6. Tell the contents of the dialogue as close to the text as possible.

14.8. Time for fun

14.8.1. Read and translate the following jokes:

1. Old lady: And what is your name, my good man?

Convict: 999.

Old lady: Oh, but that's not your real name.

Convict: No, that's only my pen name.

pen-name (.)

pen (slang)

2. Some women take up the law and become lawyers. Others lay down the law and become wives.

take up the law .

lay down the law

3. He: All women are divided into three classes: the looked at, the looked over and the overlooked.

She: Really? And so are men: the intelligent, the handsome and the majority.

14.8.2. Do you know that...

The English language is said to contain 490,000 words and 300,000 scientific terms. About 80,000 words are theoretically in use and this includes archaic legal jargon. It is said that William Shakespear used about 29,000 words in his works; an average English-speaking person uses several thousand; a poorly educated person can do with as little as 1,000 words in his everyday life.

* 14.8.3. Try to read and translate the poem. Pay special attention to the pronunciation of the underlined words.

Our queer language

I think you already know

Of though and bough and cough and dough

Others may stumble, but not you

On hiccough, thorough, tough and through.

Well done! And now you wish, perhaps,

To learn of less familiar traps?

Beware of heard, a dreadful word

That looks like beard and sounds like bird.

And dead; it's said like bed, not bead

For goodness' sake don't call it deed!

Watch out for meat and great and threat

They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.

A moth is not a moth in mother,

Nor both in bother or in brother.

And here is not a match for there.

Nor dear and fear for bear and pear.

And there's dose and rose and lose

Just look them upand goose and choose,

And cork and front and card and sword.

And font and front and word and sword.

And do and go and thwart and cart

Come, come, I've hardly made a start!

A dreadful language? Man alive,

I'd mastered it when I was five!

UNIT 15

: sounds [?], [Z], [D]

: -ive

: ,

: Steve tells about judicial profession in England

15.1. Sound right

15.1.1. Listen, look, say:

joy large agent charged

joke bridge major aged

juror badge pages huge Jack

jam edge a jam large jar

job age page nine stage-conscious

junior barge tell Jack Judge Johnson

15.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Justice's justice.

2. Meet John Jones junior.

3. June is a prodigy of energy.

4. John arranged your journey to Japan.

5. Don't bear Joan a grudge because she misjudged you.

6. June marriage's lucky.

7. Don't jest with edged tools.

8. James joined geography society.

9. Just imagine Jim learning the German language.

10. Be just before you are generous.

15.1.3. Listen and look. Pay attention to the sound [?] as in judge.

I

A. That judge had a grudge against George.

. Judges aren't allowed to have grudges.

A. Well, that judge had a grudge.

B. So he sent George to gaol.

A. Poor George!

B. And poor Jill!

A. Jill? His wife's called Jacqueline!

B. Poor Jacqueline!

II

A. In just a few hours we do the next part of the journey by plane. So jump into bed and get some rest, John.

B. Will it be a jet, uncle Jim?

A. Probably a jet.

B. A jumbo jet?

A. Mmprobably. Well, good night, John.

B. Just think! A jumbo jet. Uncle!

A. Good night, John.

B. Zooooooom!

A. Sleep tight, John.

15.1.4. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

15.1.5. Read the dialogues in pairs.

15.1.6. Listen and look. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [Z] as in measure, [D] as in this, [?J as in job, [s] as in yes.

I

A. This is a job for you to do.

B. What time?

A. The usual time.

B. Where?

A. The usual, place.

B. Is it dangerous?

A. I imagine sothese jobs usually are.

B. Yes...

A. Enjoy yourself.

B. Thank you very much.

A. Always a pleasure.

B. Hm!

A. And now, if you don't mind, I have another engagement, so, er ... see you later ... perhaps!

II

A. You measured me in July, Mr Jennings.

B. Yes, sir. But I'd rather measure you again... Oh, yes just a small adjustment here, sir.

A. So my bulge is getting larger. It's ... middle age!

B. It's only a small adjustment, ".ir. A. That's what you said when you measured me in July.

15.1.7. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the intonation.

15.1.8. Read the dialogues in pairs.

15.2. Word-building

15.2.1. Make adjectives with the help of suffix -ive:

collect, attract, create, demonstrate, execute, negate.

15.2.2. Translate the following word-combinations:

conservative party, productive work, expensive clothes, defensive measures, progressive policy, administrative building, affirmative answer.

15.3. Full understanding

15.3.1. , , :

legal ['l?g@l], document, standard corporation, verdict ['v?dIkt], proceeding [prou's?dI?].

* 15.3.2. , , :

New words:

solicitor [s@'lIsIt@]

to give advice

to pass an exam

junior [dj?nj@]

councel ['kauns(@)l]

plaintiff ['pleIntIf]

defendant

age

juror ['dju@r@]

guilty ['gIltI]

to appoint

to examine (.)

to add

guest

probably

School vocabulary:

to be glad, necessary.

* 15.3.3. :

Steve tells about judicial profession in England

... Well, you've told us many interesting things about English law and courts, but you didn't tell anything about lawyers Nell said. Oh, I like your being so inquisitive and I'm glad I can give you all the necessary information, Steve answered. Then he said that there were two classes of lawyers Barristers and Solicitors. And when Pete asked him what the difference was between them Steve explained that solicitors were lawyers who took legal business for ordinary people. You know, that I'm the solicitor myself. So as a rule my business is to give advice to non-professional clients and to prepare all the necessary documents for the barrister. It's the barrister who conducts the case in the higher courts. Nell asked if barrister had some educational standard. Yes, Steve answered. A barrister must pass the special legal exams and become a member of a legal corporation called Inn of Court. Pete said that he had learnt about four Inns of Court when he had been in London. But probably you don't know that barristers are either juniors or King's (Queen's) Steve said. When a barrister becomes O.C. he takes silk. It means that he can wear a silk gown. Participating in a trial, a barrister may be counsel for the plaintiff (counsel for the prosecution) or counsel for the defendant (counsel for the defence). I've heard so much about English jury. What are their duties? Nell asked. All serious crimes are tried in a superior court before a jury. Most men and women between the ages of 21 and 60 can be jurors. According to English law the jury is to return only one of two verdicts Guilty or Not Guilty. Then Pete asked whether they elected judges in England. No, the judges are appointed from the barristers. The judge's functions are to conduct the proceedings, put questions to the parties and witnesses, examine the documents and evidence and to pass the sentence (judgement).

Well, and now I think it's my turn to ask questions, Steve added. But Pete and Nell said that they would gladly answer all the questions of their guests, but next day, because it was too late.

15.3.4. 8 . .

15.3.5. , .

Presence of mind

A fire broke out in the middle of the night in a country house where a number of guests had been staying. Now they were all standing outside wrapped up in shawls, sheets and blankets. One of the guests was the last to join the crowd. He said he is not at all excited and didn't loose his usual presence of mind in spite of danger. He drew everybody's attention to the fact that he had not only put on his shirt and tie but even found time to fetch his pipe and his tobacco-pouch. The other guests were full of admiration and praised his self-possession. Only one of them wondered why together with shirt and tie he didn't put on his trousers.

15.3.6. . , . ( .)

Model: I. Bill Has passed his exam.

S. I' knew Bill had passed his exam.

1. Helen likes to give advice.

2. Steve is a good solicitor.

3. Bob examined the scene of the crime very carefully.

4. John was glad to meet his girl-friend.

5. Tommy worked at his English very hard yesterday.

6. Irene will get married next Friday.

7. Vie will get a nice present tomorrow.

8. Henry lost all his money.

15.3.7. -:

. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . , . 6. , .

15.3.8. - . , . ( .)

Model: . Peter, go to the door.

S. He told Peter to go to the door.

15.3.9. - . , . .

Model: . Do you like this book?

S1. What did he ask?

S2. He asked if you liked this book?

S1. Oh, yes, I do.

1. Did you go to the cinema yesterday? 2. Have you read this book? 3. Are you a good sportsman? 4. Can you speak Italian? 5. Did you see Helen yesterday? 6. Have you finished your work? 7. Are you listening to me? 8. Were you abroad last year?

15.3.10. . - .

Model: S1. Where do you work? STEVE: What did he ask?

S2 He asked where you worked.

*15.3.11. . .

1. A young man introduced his friend, a well-known comedian, to his aunt, an old lady. Trying to be witty he said, This is a friend of mine, the famous K. and he is not such a fool as he looks. Indeed, madam, said the comedian, and that is the great difference between me and your nephew.

2. Once a young man applied for a job to the manager of a circus. The following dialogue took place between the two.

What is your name and what can you do?

I'm John Brown, the egg-king, for I can eat six dozen eggs at a single sitting.

Do you know that we give four shows every day?

Well, four shows will fetch more money than one!

Do you think you can perform four times a day?

I have no doubt whatever about it.

But on holidays we shall try to manage a show every hour!

In that case one thing must be settled before I sign a contract.

Namely?

No matter how many shows you give a day, I must have time to go out and have my dinner.

* 15.3.12. -:

1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , .

* 15.3.13. : . . , .

BARRISTERS SOLICITORS

1...................... 1. .....................

2...................... 2......................

* 15.3.14. .

15.3.15. . , , . .

1. I am so ... I have ... ...!

2. I've got all the ... things here.

3. All the ... have come already.

4. He was ... the ... for the defence.

5. The ... has won the case.

counsel, appointed, necessary, passed an exam, glad, jurors, plaintiff.

15.3.16. - . 3 . .

Mr Smith is going to take silk. For this he has to pass special legal exams. Then he'll be able to give advice to non-professional clients and not to take part in the court trials as the counsel for the prosecution but only as the counsel for defence.

15.3.17. , . .

15.3.18. , . ?

15.3.19. , , ?

1. conduct a trial and pass the sentence;

2. have a first-hand knowledge of the event and give evidence under oath;

3. bring suits against other persons;

4. in cooperation with other persons are to decide the truth of the case tried before the judge;

5. act for the state in prosecuting criminals;

6. are appointed to try small offences in Britain;

7. break laws;

8. are suspected of committing crimes and brought before the court.

15.4. Practice in communication

(Certainty/Uncertainty)

*15.4.1. Read and try to remember.

Certainty Uncertainty

1. I'm quite/absolutely 1. I'm not sure.

certain/sure it is. 2. I'm not quite/at all sure.

2. No, certainly not. 3. I'm not certain.

3. Yes, certainly. 4. Could be/Might be.

4. There's no doubt. 5. I couldn't say.

about it.

15.4.2. Respond with certainly or uncertainly to the following questions:

1. Are boys cleverer than girls?

2. Is Chinese more widely spoken than English?

3. Are you generous?

4. Would you like to visit the Moon one day?

5. Do you like our lessons?

15.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

DETECTIVE: Where were you last night at exactly 9.20 pm?

BOB: 9.20 pm? I couldn't say. I can't remember.

DETECTIVE: Are you sure you can't remember?

BOB: Absolutely certain. (Quite sure.)

DETECTIVE: Were you in or out? Can you remember that?

BOB: I'm not sure. I think I went out at about half past nine. But I'm not certain.

DETECTIVE: Did you see anyone coming into the block of flats?

BOB: No, I didn't.

DETECTIVE: Sure?

BOB: Quite sure. There's no doubt about it.

15.4.4. A friend is asking you about your holidays. He/she wants to know what you did, where you went and so on. Some of the questions you can answer with certainty. Others you can't because you've forgotten.

15.5. General understanding

15.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 15)

1. Coke's mind went back to the time, five years earlier, when both he and Masters had been officers in the same Army Intelligence unit. Masters had been Coke's superior. Several important military secrets had disappeared and they were both trying to find out who had taken them.

One evening Coke had gone, on Masters' orders, to a lonely place in Epping Forest. Masters had told him he would meet a possible informer there. While he was waiting, three men had grabbed him from behind. They had poured whisky all over him and down his throat and then hit him over the head.

2. When he came to he was back in his car, but it had crashed into a tree. The police had already arrived. It appeared that Coke had got drunk and lost control of his car. The police had found several files marked Top Secret in his car. Coke swore he had never seen them before. The police also found Coke had deposited more than 2,000 in his bank account a few weeks before. Coke had known nothing of the money. The bank said the cheques had arrived by post with Coke's countersigna-ture. Nobody believed Coke's story. It appeared he had sold secrets for money and was going to do so again the night he had crashed. Masters denied he had ever told Coke to go to Epping Forest. This is what Coke wanted to ask questions about now.

3. Let's start at the beginning... when you sent me to Epping Forest that night, Coke said in a flat, cold voice.

That was Hugo's idea. I had nothing to do with it.

And who is Hugo? Coke demanded.

He sells government secrets to any foreign country that's interested. He made me give him information. I didn't want to.

Why did you involve me in all this?

The police suspected someone. We wanted to make them think you were the spy. We knew they would if they found your dead body in a car after a crash with all sorts of secrets in it.

My dead body?

Hugo thought the crash would kill you. Masters said.

And why aren't you still in the army? You'd be a lot more useful to Hugo if you were, Coke went on.

It became too dangerous. Anyway, he still uses me.

How? Coke asked.

We hide microfilms of secret documents in the antique weapons I send abroad. The people we send them to pose as foreign collectors. Coke had one last question. It was the most important. Where's Hugo now? Take me to him!

15.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. Masters had sent Coke to Epping Forest because...

a) he wanted him to meet the informer;

b) he wanted him to be killed;

c) he wanted him to receive some secret documents.

2. Nobody believed Coke because...

a) he was drunk;

b) the files had been found in his car;

c) he had sold secrets for money. 3. Hugo planned to kill Coke because...

a) he wanted the police think he was a spy;

b) he knew too many secrets;

c) police suspected him.

15.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What were Coke and Masters trying to do five years earlier?

2. What happened when Coke was waiting in Epping Forest?

3. What did the police find in the car and in the bank?

4. What did Coke find out about Hugo?

5. What did the criminals want police to think?

6. How did Hugo use Masters?

15.5.4. Try to tell the main events of this extract in 3-4 sentences.

15.6. Scanning practice

15.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. What did a Spaniard do?

2. Where did the Indian apply?

3. What kind of a man was the judge of the court?

4. What did the Indian invent?

5. What did the Indian tell the judge?

15.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Bribery stopped

It happened in America not long after its colonization by the Spaniards. A Spaniard stole an Indian's horse. The Indian however found the thief and demanded the horse to be returned to him, but the Spaniard refused to do it. The Indian applied to the court and brought witnesses who could testify that it was his horse. But the judge of the court was a bad man and used to take bribes from the parties who came to the court. The Indian knew this, and he invented a trick how to deceive the judge. Before going to the court on the day of the trial, he took a big stone and put it under his arm. The judge at once noticed that the Indian had something under his arm and decided the case in the Indian's favour. He ordered the horse to be returned to the Indian and punished the Spaniard for theft. After the trial, when the judge and the Indian were left alone, the judge asked the former what it was under his arm and whom it was meant for. The Indian showed him the stone and told it was meant for the judge in case he would had decided in the Spaniard's favour. It was a good lesson for the bad judge, and he gave up the habit of taking bribes.

(227 words)

15.6.3. Answer the questions in 15.6.1. (Books closed.)

15.7. Listening practice

15.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after reading the text.

1. What does he usually have with his meals?

2. What does he usually have on Mondays?

3. What perfume is Miss Smith wearing?

4. Does she always wear it?

5. What question was he going to ask her?

15.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

15.7.3. Answer the questions in 15.7.1.

15.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand the text.

endangered

owl

environment

threaten

assassinate

logging

bully

destruction

solitary confinement

torture

courageous

15.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

15.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

15.8. Time for fun

15.8.1. Read the following jokes and then try to retell them in English.

1. LIFE TRIALS

Come in, my poor man, said a lady to a ragged tramp, and I will get you something to eat;

Thank you, ma'am.

I suppose, continued the lady, setting a meal before him, your life has been full of trials.

Yes, ma'am; and the worst of it I was always got convicted.

trial ,

convict

2. EXACT TESTIMONY

A coroner was examining a witness at the inquest.

Your son says you saw the man jump out of the building?

Yes, sir.

From your knowledge of men, do you think he jumped out of despondency?

No, sir; it was out of the fourth storey window.

coroner

inquest ,

despondency

!!! * 15.8.2. And now try to solve this crossword.

ACROSS:

1. A book in which you find the meaning of words. 7. Not cooked. 8. Every one. 10. Frequently. 12. The main notion of any religion. 14. Tidy. 17. Rest of comfort. 19. Act. 21. Personal pronoun (third person singular). 22. A meal or a drink. 23. Therefore. 24. Heap. 25. You must open these to enter houses. 28. Thirteen down without the s. 29. Water falling from the clouds. 31. Preposition. 32. Attempt. 33. You can see five of these on your foot.

DOWN:

1. Pull. 2. Cold (comparative degree). 3. Not on. 4. Plural of is. 5. Past tense of run. 6. The twenty fifth and twenty-third letters of the alphabet. 9. Lonely (comparative). 11. Accusative of they. 13. You do this with your eyes. 15. Not before. 16. Singular of 33 across. 18. Long (opposite). 20. Wireless. 23. Same as 23 across. 24. A tame animal. 26. Half of two. 27. A male child. 30. Preposition.

UNIT 16

: sounds [], [S], [s]

: nation-wide

: ;

: Steve asks questions

16.1. Sound right

16.1.1. Listen, look, say:

cheek future watch reached

chamber culture fetch lunched

child nature lunch fetched

choice orchard catch watch chain

chill lecture ditch Dutch cheese

chubby mixture much catch Charles

16.1.2. Listen, look, say:

1. Which is which?

2. Don't catch a chill.

3. Such carpenters, such chips.

4. Not much of a catch.

5. Here are two pictures which are a match.

6. Charlie doesn't know chalk from cheese.

7. Venture a small fish to catch a great one.

8. Chattie's wisdom matches her charms.

9. Hatches, catches, matches and dispatches.

10. The years teach much which the days never know.

16.1.3. Listen, look, say. Pay attention to the difference between the sounds [S] as in shop, [s] as in seem, [] as in chop.

I

A. The Chairman shouted at Miss Chase.

. Shouted at Miss Chase! Oh, a Chairman shouldn't shout, should he?

A. No, he shouldn't.

B. Not even at Miss Chase.

II

A. Will you watch Sheila for me while I finish shopping? I must fetch some fish and some cheese and oh, yes 1 must ask the butcher for some nice chops. Watch her, won't you?

B. She seems to need a wash. Shall I wash her?

A. I wish you would.

B. If I can catch her! Sheila! Come for a nice wash, Sheila! Sheila! Oh! Ouch! She scratched me!

A. Sheila! I'm ashamed of you, Sheila!

B. Oh, it's only a small scratch.

A. Are you sure?

B. Fortunately, she's only a small cheetah.

16.2. Word-building

(Compound adjectives)

16.2.1. Translate the following compound adjectives:

a paper-white face, a sky-blue car, apple-red cheeks, steel-grey eyes, life-long history, rustproof metal, silk-soft hair, knee-high boots.

16.2.2. Make compound adjectives according to the following word combinations. Translate them: hair that is as brown as honey; water as cold as stone; man as deaf as stone; a vest that is proof against bullets; wood as hard as iron; a confe rence that continues through a week (long); a son who is one year old.

16.2.3. Translate the following sentences:

1. The sun was blood-red behind the thin trees some distance off. 2. The scooter was secured by a thief-proof device. 3. His face whisky-red, was handsome. 4. Her eyes were soft, cat-green. 5. Crime in Detroit had arisen alarmingly in recent years and now even suburban Birmingham once considered crime-free had armed robberies.

16.3. Full understanding

16.3.1. , , :

nationality, administrative [{d'mInIstr@tIv], minister, social, cultural, plan, protection, moment, instance, Procurator-General, ministry, agency.

16.3.2. , , , :

New words:

to do one's best

to join

body (.)

chamber ['SteImb@]

term

executive [Ig'zekjutIv]

development

to draft [dr?ft]

will you be so kind ...?

to administer justice

supervision ['sj?p@vIZ@n]

to supervise ['sj?p@vaIz]

to pay attention

to forget

School vocabulary:

certainly, to help, soon, year, young, to enjoy, low.

* 16.3.3. :

Steve asks questions

Do you remember about your yesterday's promise to answer my questions? asked Steve next evening. Certainly, we do. And we'll try to do our best, was Pete's answer. Nell will join us soon. So I'd like to learn something about the highest body of state authority of this country. Oh, I'm sure I can help you in this. You see, the President of the Russian Federation is the head of the state. The Parliament of the Russian Federation is the representative and legislative organ of the state consisting of two chambers: the Federation Council and the State Duma. Both of them are elected for a term of 4 years. And what about the executive body? Well, the highest executive and administrative body of state authority of Russia is the Government of Russia. I wonder, if it has real powers? Surely, it has. The powers the Government has are rather numerous. Let me mention some of them: direction of economic, social and cultural development, drafting current and longterm state plans for the economic and social development of the country, public order maintenance, citizens' rights and freedoms protection and so on.

At this moment Nell's appeared. Hello! I'm sorry I'm late. But really it's not my fault. That is the thing the girls of all countries say when they are late, Steve said, smiling. Oh, I'm sure Pete's managed to answer all your questions. Yes, he did. But I've got some for you as well. Will you be so kind to tell me how justice is administered in Russia? By the courts of different instances, of course. The Supreme Court is the highest and district (city) people's courts are the lowest in the judicial system. I've heard there's a special body for supervision of the observance of the law in your country. Is it really so? Yes, it is. The Procurator-General the Federation Council of Russia appoints for a term of 5 years is to supervise over the strict observance of laws by all ministers as well as by officials and citizens of Russia. The agencies of the Procurator's office perform their functions independently of any local bodies. Well, thank you very much, my young friends, for the great attention you paid on me. I really enjoyed my stay in your beautiful city. And I hope we'll keep in touch. So do we. Have a good journey and don't forget to write to us. Good-bye!

16.3.4. .

16.3.5. , . , .

1. The man a) we read yesterday * is very important

2. The article b) the commission ** refused to act

3. The decision c) you see here *** is my uncle

4. Discussing d) you spoke about **** describes the

the plan judicial system

of Russia

5. The executi- e) he came to ***** was stolen

ve committee by the defendant

6. Almost eve- f) they applied to ****** we found

rything many drawbacks

in it

16.3.6. . , . . .

dear sir the plan you have sent to me can not be fulfilled everything i see around doesn't correspond to what i learnt at home the people i meet are not like you told me about the scheme your specialists drafted is of no good the person i had to apply to appeared to be a nice girl i fell in love with the flat she lives in is very nice and soon we'll get married i'm sorry not to fulfil your task hope not to see you again yours j.

16.3.7. 5 ?

16.3.8. ! ! .

Labour we delight in physics pain.

16.3.9. , .

1. The Monster

In 1870 Mark Twain was walking along the streets of Boston when he noticed in a shop window a machine he had never seen before. He entered the shop, asked the shop-assistant how the monster functioned and bought it for 125 dollars. He brought home the machine he had nicknamed the monster and started practising on it at once. The machine was a typewriter and Mark Twain typed a whole book on it. When he brought his manuscript to the editor, the latter was delighted. He made Mark Twain promise him to bring everything he would write later on typed on this wonderful machine. Tom Sawyer was the first book Mark Twain had typewritten.

2. Over again

Three old friends used to have their Sunday dinner together. Just after one of these dinners one of them fell asleep. When he woke up his friends rebuked him for the lack of politeness he had shown. The man tried to prove that he hadn't been sleeping. Will you believe me, he said at last, if I retell the story you have been telling? Try it, said his friends, but if you miss a single word, we shall fine you. The man started the story and told it word for word without missing a single detail. Now his friends had to admit their mistake. Well, said the man laughing. Now I can confess the crime I had committed, for I was asleep and didn't hear a word you said. I simply knew by heart the story you were sure to tell after such a heavy dinner with plenty of good wine.

* 16.3.10. -. ( .)

1. , , . 2. , , . 3. , , . 4. , . 5. , , , ? 6. , , . 7. , , . 8. , , , . 9. , (enjoyed). 10. , , .

16.3.11. , . ?

the Russia's policy objectives; the well-thought-out nationalities policy; US army race supporters; our country's number one trade partner; Railway station waiting-room murder inquiry.

16.3.12. . . .

1 The justice is a. ..by the courts of different i...

2. Both of c... are equal in r....

3. The Government is the highest e... and administrative b... of state a... of Russia.

4. Among the powers of the Government there are d... of state plans, public order m..., citizen's rights and freedoms p...

5. Procurator's office is a special body for a... of the o... of law.

16.3.13. - : . , , ?

1. group of persons who do smth. together or who are united in some way;

2. power or right to give orders and make others obey;

3. set of rooms in a large building to use as offices;

4. having authority to carry out decisions, laws, decrees, etc.;

5. to outline smth. to be done;

6. the law and its administration;

7. to watch and direct (work, organization);

8. to get pleasure from; to have as an advantage or benefit;

9. settlement of a question;

10. fixed or limited period of time.

16.3.14. , . , . !

The highest body of state authority of Russia is the Parliament of Russia. It consists of two chambers which are equal and elected for a term of 6 years. The highest executive body of state authority is the Parliament of Russia. The justice is administered by the courts of different instances. The Procurator's office is the highest court and the district people's courts are the lowest ones. The agencies of the Procurator's office perform their functions independently of any local bodies.

16.3.15. -:

1. , , . 2. . 3. , ? 4. . 5. 5 . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. .

* 16.3.16. , . . .

* 16.3.17. , . . .

16.4. Practice in communication

(Contradiction / Denial)

* 16.4.1. Read and try to remember:

A. You said (that) you liked tennis.

B. 1. I never said that/anything of the sort.

2. That's not right.

3. I'm sorry, but I don't think I did (polite).

4. With respect, that's not what I said (formal).

5. I deny having said that.

6. I don't remember saying that.

7. Did I really say that?

16.4.2. Someone tells you that you said:

1. a woman's place was in the home;

2. girls were easier to bring up than boys;

3. travelling was dull;

4. English was an easy language to learn;

5. you were going to get married.

16.4.3. Read the dialogue and then dramatize it.

BARRISTER: You told the Court that you were a friend of the defendant's.

WITNESS: I'm sorry, that's not exactly what I said.

BARRISTER: What exactly did you say, then?

WITNESS: I said we'd been neighbours for many years.

BARRISTER: But you said you knew him very well.

WITNESS: With respect, that's not quite right. I said I knew him well by sight.

16.4.4. A friend tells you that you said you would stop doing something. Contradict/deny everything he/she says.

Model: A. But you said you'd stop smoking.

B. ...

16.5. General understanding

16.5.1. Read the text. Try to understand it and be ready to answer the questions.

The man who escaped

(Episode 16)

1. Masters told Coke that Hugo owned a large garage in the North of London. Cars that had been damaged were taken there to be repaired. It was also where the secret documents Hugo sold were kept before they were micro-filmed and sent abroad.

They got into Masters' white Jaguar and drove there. Coke sat in front with Masters. Kate sat behind. It was almost evening when they got to the garage. It was at the end of the street and was surrounded by shops and small houses. They parked at the end of the street. People were beginning to close their shops and go home. The garage stood open until six. Coke sat and watched the lights go off. When the last one had been turned off and the garage was completely dark, Coke turned to Masters again.

Now tell me exactly where the documents are kept before they're sent off, he said.

2. At first Masters didn't answer. He had become a little braver again. Coke pressed the pistol into his stomach. Because of you, I've been kept in prison for four years. Because of you, my life has been ruined. I'll kill you here and now if you don't answer! . Masters looked at the pistol and went pale. They're kept in Hugo's office, in an ordinary file in his desk, he answered. And the microfilms? Coke demanded. They're kept there, too. Do you know if any documents have been sent off recently? Some were sent last week. I know. I sent them myself, Masters said. And will there be any there now, waiting to be sent off? Again Masters hesitated. Coke pressed the pistol even harder into his stomach. I don't know. There might be. Hugo told me he was going to give me some soon, he said.

3. Coke gave Kate the pistol. She was still sitting behind Masters. Keep him here until I get back, he said. But what are you going to do? she asked. Break into the garage if I can. Perhaps I can find proof that Hugo sells these things. If I do, I'll phone the police. But what if you don't? What if you are seen and caught before you can find anything at all? Kate asked. But Coke had already started walking towards the dark garage. In the dark winter evening, it looked very much like a prison.

16.5.2. Choose the correct answer. Don't use the text.

1. The garage was...

a) in the middle of the street with no houses around;

b) at the end of the street with many cars around;

c) at the end of the street with shops and small houses around.

2. Masters said that...

a) there were no secret documents in the garage;

b) there might be some secret documents in the garage;

c) all the documents had been sent away.

3. Coke wanted to break into the garage...

a) to find proof that Hugo was a spy;

b) to find Hugo;

) to find proof that Masters was a spy.

16.5.3. Answer the teacher's questions. (Books closed.)

1. What did Masters tell about the garage in the North of London?

2. Till what time was Coke waiting?

3. Where were the documents kept?

4. What for did Coke want to break into the garage?

16.5.4. Give a short summary of the text (4-6 sentences).

16.6. Scanning practice

16.6.1. Read the questions. Be sure you've got them well in mind.

1. How did the criminals manage to hijack the helicopter?

2. Who were the hijackers?

3. How did the prisoners escape?

16.6.2. Start scanning the text. Don't fail to note your time.

Helicopter plucks two from jail

Rome. Two gunmen yesterday hijacked a Red Cross helicopter, lifted two inmates from a Rome prison courtyard and flew off in a hail of automatic gunfire. A third prisoner ran to the helicopter, but slipped in the rain.

After taking off from the prison, the helicopter landed in a Rome football field where a match was underway, and the hijackers and escapees fled by car.

Officials said the two hijackers spoke French and that one of the escapees, a Tunisian-born Frenchman, was sought by French authorities for a Paris bank robbery and murder. The other one was suspected of supplying arms to Italian terrorists.

Police said the hijackers walked into San Camilo Hospital in Western Rome and cornered the helicopter pilot, Mr. Mauro Pompa, aged 42. They handcuffed the pilot's 10-year-old son to a radiator and forced Mr. Pompa at gunpoint to take them to the helicopter, parked across the street.

The white helicopter with red crosses painted on each side then flew across the city to Rebibbia prison in eastern Rome. There, it hovered a yard above the courtyards where about 50 inmates were exercising, deputy warden, Mr. Giancarlo Baldassini, said. As the hijackers fired automatic weapons for cover and lowered a rope ladder, two inmates dashed to the helicopter and jumped in. A guard at Rebibbia prison was slightly injured by flying glass during the gun battle.

Two shots fired by a guard hit the helicopter.

(340 words) (fromThe Guardian)

16.6.3. Answer the questions in 16.6.1. (Books closed.)

16.7. Listening practice

16.7.1. Look at the following questions. You'll have to answer them after listening to the text.

1. Why does he have to get up at 7 o'clock?

2. When is he happy?

3. Where did his grandfather work?

4. How much did he work?

5. What did he have to do at war?

6. Why did he have to go to the hospital?

7. Why isn't he happy now?

16.7.2. Listen to the dialogue.

16.7.3. Answer the questions in 16.7.1.

16.7.4. Look through the list of words. They will help you to understand, the text.

ancestor

frustrating (.)

retire

16.7.5. Listen to the story. Be ready to give the contents of it.

16.7.6. Tell the contents of the story as close to the text as possible.

16.8. Time for fun

16.8.1. Read and translate the following jokes:

1. PRISONER: Judge, I don't know what to do.

JUDGE: Why, how's that?

PRISONER: I swore to tell the truth, but every time I try some lawyer objects.

2. You are lying so clumsily, said the judge to the defendant, that I would advise you to get a lawyer.

3. The defence lawyer was cross-examining a witness. He asked, And you say you called on Mrs. Jones, May second. Now will you tell the jury what she said? I object to the question, interrupted the prosecutor. There was nearly an hour's argument between the counsels and finally the judge allowed the question. And as I was saying, the defence lawyer began again, on May second you called on Mrs. Jones. Now what did she say? Nothing, replied the witness. She was not at home.

!!! 16.8.2. Can you complete the following sentences with the correct question tag? The first six are simple, the second six more difficult.

1. Acorns grow on oak trees, ...?

2. You don't mind if I watch television, ...?

3. Dylan Thomas was a Welsh poet, ...?

4. You will be home early to-night,...?

5. I haven't much time to catch the train, ...?

6. I always meet you in the park, ...?

7. Let's all go to the zoo after lunch, ...?

8. You'd like cream in your coffee, ...?

9. Pass me the butter and the marmalade, ...?

10. I'm more relaxed since I took up yoga, ...?

11. You'd better be careful with that sharp knife, ...?

12. You and I both enjoy ballet, ...?

!!! * 16.8.3. Crossword puzzles are popular in Britain and are found in nearly all newspapers. The main theme of this one is animals. Some of the clues are not straight forward (they are marked), so think twice about them.

CLUES ACROSS:

1. Keen-eyed bird of prey (5). 3. This kind is human (3)* 5. Queen of beasts? (7)*. 7. Kittens grow into these (4). 8. Built in spring to hold eggs (4). 10. Dogs wag their tails when they are this (7) 12. A silly person or a long-eared member of the horse family (3) 13. The plural of this is mice (5).

DOWN:

1. Fish that is proverbially slippery (3)*

2. Nothing lives for this (4)*. 3. Shellfish that sound like parts of our bodies that give us strength (7)*. 4. The time for nocturnal animals (5). 6. This sea creature is all arms (7). 7. You might not consider him charming, but this snake is often charmed (5). 9. A microscopic trouble-maker (4)* 11. Female deer or rabbit (3).

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